Clinical Findings and Complications
Stages of illness: There seem to be different stages of illness that patients may move through.
- Replicative stage – Viral replication occurs over a period of several days. An innate immune response occurs, but this response fails to contain the virus. Relatively mild symptoms may occur due to direct viral cytopathic effect and innate immune responses.
- Adaptive immunity stage – An adaptive immune response eventually kicks into gear. This leads to falling titres of virus. However, it may also increase levels of inflammatory cytokines and lead to tissue damage – causing clinical deterioration.
- This progression may explain patient phenomena wherein they are relatively OK for several days, but then suddenly deteriorate when they enter the adaptive immunity stage
• This has potentially important clinical implications: Initial clinical symptoms aren’t necessarily predictive of future deterioration.
Clinical Symptoms: Signs and symptoms include:
- Myalgia or fatigue
- Shortness of breath
- Sore throat
- Runny nose
- Diarrhoea and nausea
- Muscle ache
- Pneumonia and ARDS.
- Renal failure, pericarditis and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
- Severe Pneumonia
- Acute Respiratory Failure and ARDS
- Acute Renal failure
- Disseminated intravascular coagulation
- Sepsis or septic shock
High risk group
- Age above 60 years old
- Cardiovascular disease
- Other chronic disease such as chronic kidney disease, Chronic Respiratory disease, Sickle cell…etc.
- Immune deficiency
- Pre-existing pulmonary disease